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中国故事:杭州历史人物岳飞

2018-08-01 22:40编辑:clhwcc.com人气:


  岳飞(公元1103 - 1142)出身卑微,是南宋(公元1127 - 1279) 对抗入侵的金国(金是发源自中国东北的一个非汉族政权,被古代汉人认为是蛮夷)一名天才的军事战略家。在岳飞成为将军之前,金国曾成功地征服了北方,迫使宋室南迁。在混乱中,宋徽宗和他的儿子钦宗被抓获,这一重大事件标志着北宋王朝的终结。

Born from a humble background, Yue Fei (岳飞1103-1142 AD) was a general and talented military strategist from the Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279 AD) who fought against the invading Jin Dynasty (the Jin are not Han Chinese but are powerful Jurchen tribes from north-east China, and considered to be barbarians and foreign invaders by the ancient Han people). Prior to Yue becoming a general, the Jin had succeeded in their unrelenting conquest of the north, forcing the Song from their capital in Kaifeng. Amidst the chaos, Emperor Huizong and his son, Qinzong who was next in line, were captured and this significant event marked the end of the Northern Song Dynasty.

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  随后 南宋王朝在新皇帝高宗的统治下开始,以临安(现属杭州重要历史遗址)为新首都。当岳飞升到将军的时候,他长期北伐阻止了金人的南下,最终兵临开封城下,在那里他计划收复首付旧都。在此期间,高宗的亲信宠臣秦桧建议皇帝召回岳飞并开始与金和谈,,因为人们认为金国如果在开封失败可能会释放徽、钦二宗。

The Southern Song Dynasty subsequently began under the reign of a new Emperor Gaozong, with Lin'an, as the new capital. Lin'an was to become the present site of the city of Hangzhou. So rich a heritage! When Yue rose to general, he fought a long campaign against the Jin halting their conquests and eventually pushing them all the way back to Kaifeng where he planned to retake the city. During this time, Emperor Gaozong's trusted grand advisor, Qin Hui, advised the Emperor to recall Yue Fei and begin peace talks as it was thought that the defeat of the Jin at Kaifeng might result in the release of Emperor Huizong and Qinzong.

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  不出意料,高宗皇帝采纳了这条建议,因为前几位皇帝的回归将威胁到他的皇位继承权。皇上还向岳飞连发十二道金牌。回到杭州后,岳云和他的心腹张宪被逮捕监禁。为了迫使他们认罪,严刑拷打两个月却仍然没有任何进展。当人们请愿释放岳飞的时候,秦桧开始担心,他的妻子也来说服他,这次不动手他就再也没有机会除掉岳飞。秦桧的妻子知道没有证据证明岳飞有罪,于是发明了“莫须有”(也许有),这就意味着,尽管没有证据,这一含糊其辞的罪名足以宣布他犯有叛国罪。这使得秦下令处决了岳飞,他最后被绞死,而岳云和张宪被送上断头台。今天,“莫须有”这个词在汉语中仍然是指不存在的罪名。

Inevitably, Emperor Gaozong followed this advice as the return of the previous emperors would threaten his claim to the throne. Golden plaques bearing the Emperor’s orders to return were issued to Yue 12 times who eventually submitted. Upon returning to Hangzhou, Yue, his son, Yue Yun and his faithful general, Zhang Xian, were arrested and imprisoned under false charges. They were tortured in order to force them to admit to the false charges but after two months, there was still no progress. As the people were petitioning for Yue Fei's release, Qin begun to worry and his wife stepped in to convince him that if he did not get rid of Yue Fei then, he would never have another opportunity. Knowing that there was no evidence to convict Yue Fei, Qin’s wife devised the sentence 'Mo xu you' (perhaps there is ), which meant that despite the absence of evidence, the ambiguity of the charge is enough to declare him guilty of treason. This allowed Qin to order the execution of Yue Fei who was finally hanged while Yue Yun and Zhang Xian were guillotined. Today, the term ‘Mo xu you’ remains in the Chinese language a reference to fabricated charges.

(来源:网络整理)

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